IBM Journal of Research and Development
IBM Skip to main content
  Home     Products & services     Support & downloads     My account  

  Select a country  
Journals Home  
  Systems Journal  
Journal of Research
and Development
    Current Issue  
    Recent Issues  
    Papers in Progress  
    Search/Index  
    Orders  
    Description  
    Patents  
    Recent publications  
    Author's Guide  
  Staff  
  Contact Us  
  Related links:  
     IBM Research  

IBM Journal of Research and Development  
Volume 42, Number 1, Page 117 (1998)
GMR, oscillatory coupling, and related stu...
  Full article: arrowHTML arrowPDF arrowASCII   arrowCopyright info





   

Terrestrial cosmic ray intensities

by J. F. Ziegler
Cosmic rays may cause soft fails in electronic logic or memory. The IBM Journal of Research and Development, Volume 40, No. 1, discussed this complex event in detail. In order to predict electronic fail rates from cosmic particles, it is necessary to know the local cosmic ray flux. This paper reviews the penetration of cosmic rays through the earth's atmosphere, and the parameters which affect the terrestrial flux. The final particle flux is shown to vary mainly with the site's geomagnetic coordinates and its altitude. The paper describes in detail the quantitative cosmic flux at one datum (New York City) and then tabulates in an appendix the relative level at other major cities of the world.
Related Subjects: Beams, charged particle; Cosmic rays; Models and modeling; Physics; Soft errors