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IBM Journal of Research and Development  
Volume 32, Number 3, Page 414 (1988)
Mesoscopic Phenomena and Nanolithographic ...
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Scanning tunneling measurements of potential steps at grain boundaries in the presence of current flow

by J. R. Kirtley, S. Washburn, M. J. Brady
We have used a new technique to simultaneously measure the surface topography and surface potential of current-carrying polycrystalline Au60Pd40 thin films using a scanning tunneling microscope. We find abrupt steps in the surface potential due to scattering from grain boundaries in these films.
Related Subjects: Carrier transport in small structures; Mesoscopic phenomena; Physics, solid state; Scanning tunneling microscopy