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IBM Journal of Research and Development  
Volume 48, Number 2, Page 183 (2004)
Deep Computing
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The pursuit of the whole NChilada: Virtual petaflops using multi-adaptive algorithms for gravitational systems

by G. Lake, T. Quinn, D. C. Richardson, J. Stadel
"The orbit of any one planet depends on the combined motion of all the other planets, not to mention the actions of all these on each other. To consider simultaneously all these causes of motion and to define these motions by exact laws allowing of convenient calculation exceeds, unless I am mistaken, the forces of the entire human intellect.”   —Isaac Newton, 1687
We describe the keys to meeting the challenges of N-body simulation: adaptive potential solvers, adaptive integration, and volume renormalization. With these techniques and a dedicated teraflop facility, simulation can keep pace with observations of the universe. We also describe some problems in simulating the formation and stability of planetary systems.
Related Subjects: Algorithms; Computational methods; Simulation